There are four different times you should consider:
- Event time: eg, the time when an international sporting event happens, or a coronation/death/etc. This is dependent on the timezone of the event and not of the viewer.
- Television time: eg, a particular TV show is broadcast at 9pm local time all around the world. Important when thinking about publishing the results (of say American Idol) on your website
- Relative time: eg: This question has an open bounty closing in 21 hours. This is easy to display
- Recurring time: eg: A TV show is on every Monday at 9pm, even when DST changes.
Storing start/end timestamps in UTC works well. For 1, you need an event timezone name + offset stored along with the event. For 2, you need a local time identifier stored with each region and a local timezone name + offset stored for every viewer (it's possible to derive this from the IP if you're in a crunch). For 3, store in UTC seconds and no need for timezones. 4 is a special case of 1 or 2 depending on whether it's a global or a local event, but you also need to store a created at timestamp so you can tell if a timezone definition changed before or after this event was created. This is necessary if you need to show historic data.
- Always store time in UTC
- Convert to local time on display (local being defined by the user looking at the data)
- When storing a timezone, you need the name, timestamp and the offset. This is required because governments sometimes change the meanings of their timezones (eg: the US govt changed DST dates), and your application needs to handle things gracefully... eg: The exact timestamp when episodes of LOST showed both before and after DST rules changed.
Offsets and namesAn example of the above would be:
The soccer world cup finals game happened in South Africa (UTC+2--SAST) on July 11, 2010 at 19:00 UTC.
With this information, we can historically determine the exact time when the 2010 WCS finals took place even if the South African timezone definition changes, and be able to display that to viewers in their local timezone at the time when they query the database.
You also need to keep your OS, database and application tzdata files in sync, both with each other, and with the rest of the world, and test extensively when you upgrade. It's not unheard of that a third party app that you depend on did not handle a TZ change correctly.
Make sure hardware clocks are set to UTC, and if you're running servers around the world, make sure they're OSes are configured to use UTC as well. This becomes apparent when you need to copy hourly rotated apache log files from servers in multiple timezones. Sorting them by filename only works if all files are named with the same timezone. It also means that you don't have to do date math in your head when you ssh from one box to another and need to compare timestamps.
Also, run ntpd on all boxes.
Date.getTime()call. These are fine when used as opaque identifiers, or when doing date math during a single session on the same client, but don't try to cross-reference these values with something you have on the server. Your clients don't run NTP, and may not necessarily have a working battery for their BIOS clock.
TriviaFinally, governments will sometimes do very weird things:
Standard time in the Netherlands was exactly 19 minutes and 32.13 seconds ahead of UTC by law from 1909-05-01 through 1937-06-30. This time zone cannot be represented exactly using the HH:MM format.